For the realization of agricultural mechanization and agricultural modernization, agricultural machinery promotion occupies a crucial position, which can transform the new technology and new achievements of agricultural machinery into productivity, and then maximize the economic and social benefits.
However, the effective implementation of agricultural machinery promotion work is seriously hindered by the unreasonable setting of agricultural machinery promotion department, the lack of promotion funds and the lack of professional technical force support and other factors. Based on this, the author will make the following analysis and propose solutions.
The current situation of China’s agricultural machinery promotion system
1. The current situation of China’s agricultural machinery promotion system
China’s current agricultural machinery promotion system is composed of national, provincial (city), county and township 4 levels, which was established in the context of the planned economic system, in the 1980s and 1990s, China strengthened the construction of the agricultural machinery promotion system to promote the development of China’s agricultural mechanization. However, due to the adjustment of government agencies, it led to the lack of promotion funds, demonstration bases and grassroots outlets in many areas, which seriously restricted the development of agricultural machinery promotion work.
The inability to carry out normal agricultural machinery promotion work has led to a serious disconnection between agricultural machinery manufacturing enterprises and farmers, which in turn has hindered the promotion of new machinery. A more serious situation is that the relevant departments do not conduct strict promotion trials and tests on new products launched by agricultural machinery manufacturing enterprises, so that farmers buy agricultural machinery with quality problems, causing serious economic losses. With a large number of machines with quality problems flowing into the market, farmers’ enthusiasm for purchasing machines has also dropped significantly, thus bringing great resistance to the promotion of agricultural machinery.
2. Reasons for the promotion of agricultural machinery can not be carried out normally
(1) unreasonable institutional settings. County and township-level extension departments were abolished and transformed into integrated departments, performing a variety of duties, the promotion capacity was weakened.
(2) Insufficient funds for extension and backward means of extension. Due to the serious shortage of financial allocations, in order to solve the staff salaries and benefits, business services have become the main function of the agricultural machinery extension system, heavy business, light promotion phenomenon is very common. Due to financial constraints, the promotion of unfunded, the promotion of the necessary instruments, equipment is very scarce and obsolete, agricultural machinery to promote the function of public service is difficult to play.
(3) lack of policy support, not enough attention. Now the state and local policies and regulations promulgated or formulated by the specific measures less operable; agricultural machinery promotion agencies can be dispensable, agricultural machinery promotion work does not get the attention it deserves.
(4) the average level of education of professional and technical personnel of the agricultural machinery promotion team is low. Both theoretical knowledge and practical experience, capable of product testing, analysis and selection of technical work such as technical staff are few.
(5) agricultural machinery promotion work fails to combine well with market demand. At present, the main or major projects of agricultural machinery promotion are decided by governments at all levels, due to the lack of necessary testing, trials and research on the introduction of new machinery, new technologies, its advanced, adaptability can not make scientific evaluation, agricultural machinery promotion work often fails to meet the needs of farmers.
Innovative agricultural machinery promotion operation mechanism to promote the development of agricultural mechanization
1. Give full play to county-level agricultural machinery extension department public welfare services, better play the role of a link between the government, agricultural machinery extension departments, farmers and agricultural machinery manufacturing enterprises.
In the whole system, the state is responsible for the development of the overall planning, policies and regulations of the national agricultural machinery promotion. Provincial (municipal) extension departments are responsible for developing provincial (municipal) level development plans and monitoring the progress of extension work based on the actual situation. County extension departments are the specific implementation of agricultural extension work is an important sector, should give full play to the role of social welfare services.
The introduction, testing and selection of new machines and technologies are the responsibility of the county extension departments, which are also responsible for recommending superior performance and reliable quality machines and technologies to farmers. To do a good job in the promotion of agricultural machinery at the county level, first of all, sufficient funds need to be allocated to ensure the promotion of the work.
Secondly, the establishment of the agricultural machinery promotion system, the construction of pilot demonstration bases to give policy support. County agricultural extension department is the bridge and link between agricultural mechanization and agricultural machinery manufacturing industry, the success or failure of the promotion work is related to the new machinery, new technologies and other scientific research results can be quickly transformed into productivity and agricultural mechanization can be rapidly promoted.
Therefore, strengthen cooperation with research institutes, agricultural machinery manufacturing enterprises, research and development of new machinery, new technologies, improve the quality and performance of new machinery is another important element of agricultural machinery promotion work.
2. Improve the operation mechanism of township-level agricultural machinery stations, better act as a bridge and link between the government and farmers, and actively encourage agricultural machinery professional households to carry out agricultural machinery promotion business services.
As the most terminal of the system, the need to directly face the farmers to carry out services, the effectiveness of rural agricultural machinery station extension work, directly affecting the economic interests of farmers and the enthusiasm to accept new machinery and new technologies. In recent years, the planned economy has continued down the mode of operation has not adapted to the current requirements of the development of the market economy.
Therefore, the reform of the rural agricultural machinery sector, and the market economy is the real way out. Agricultural machinery promotion in countries with highly developed agricultural mechanization also has many successful experiences to learn from, such as the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Denmark and other countries and Taiwan, grassroots agricultural machinery promotion also has many successful experiences, the government encourages agricultural associations and agricultural machinery associations and other private organizations to actively undertake many functions of the government, such as agricultural science and technology (agricultural machinery) promotion, pre-production and post-production services, farmers education and training, to promote the the development of agricultural mechanization. Agricultural associations also represent farmers’ interests, communicate and coordinate with the government, and act as a bridge and link between the government and farmers. And the purpose of these associations is to serve their members, without any profit-making purpose.
At present, China’s agricultural machinery professional households have been developed to a large extent, actively guide them, through machinery joint, technology joint, service joint, etc., to take the road of market-oriented and professional agricultural machinery services, and establish organizations that serve themselves, such as agricultural machinery professional and technical associations, agricultural machinery cooperatives. The association can hold farm machinery demonstration, technical training, information dissemination and other activities for its members.
At the same time, the association can also carry out business service activities such as machine leasing, farm machinery maintenance and farm machinery operation. The association can also play an active role in the purchase of agricultural machinery for members, bank loans, and preferential policies such as state subsidies for the purchase of machinery. The government should also give policy tilts in bank loans, promotion projects, and subsidies for purchasing machines to support and help agricultural machinery cooperative organizations to get development. The government’s agricultural machinery promotion function at the grassroots level can be gradually converted to guide agricultural machinery cooperative organizations to carry out agricultural machinery promotion work.
3. The government should pay more attention to organizations such as agricultural machinery professional and technical associations and agricultural machinery cooperatives in agricultural machinery promotion, so that they can better serve farmers and better contribute to the development of China’s agricultural mechanization and agricultural machinery manufacturing industry.
Since the reform and opening up, a large number of rural come power to the city, resulting in a large amount of idle land and labor shortage status quo, but for agricultural machinery cooperative organizations to carry out on behalf of plowing, harvesting, plugging provides a very good opportunity.
Now the promulgation of “Management Measures for the Transfer of Rural Land Contract Management Rights” has created conditions for land to carry out capital management methods and for agricultural production to be intensive, large-scale, mechanized and modernized. Agricultural production will be gradually transformed from single-family self-farming mode to farming and enterprise management mode, and agricultural cooperative organizations will also be greatly developed in this change.
With the continuous development of agricultural machinery market, China’s current agricultural machinery promotion system can no longer meet the current market demand, which requires county-level agricultural machinery promotion departments to give full play to the role of public welfare services in agricultural machinery promotion work and strengthen the link between farmers and agricultural machinery manufacturing enterprises.
At the same time, improve the operation mechanism of rural agricultural machinery station, encourage cooperative organizations to carry out agricultural machinery promotion business services, and give strong support to the development of agricultural machinery cooperative organizations so that they can play a greater role in agricultural machinery promotion work, and then promote the rapid development of China’s agricultural mechanization and agricultural machinery manufacturing industry.